Monday, July 18, 2011

Reviewing Nuclear Technology Development Indonesia


By: Adjar Irawan S Hidayat, nuclear physics, the observer, the alumni of THIS INSTITUTION in 1967, the operator of the first reactor Triga Mark II, 1964, and the Chairman of the UN Association of Indonesia (United Nations Association in Indonesia) since 1973-present. He is also the Nobel Charter of Messenger of peace (Peace Messenger) of the UNITED NATIONS in 1994.

In October 1964, the people of Indonesia started talking about nuclear reactors, accounting since "criticality-experiment" against the first nuclear reactor Triga Mark II in Bandung was well done.

Djali Ahimsa leaders attempted to write in the "log-book", dated October 16, 1964: 18.37 .5?, predict 57.5 critical. Note that points out that at these as much as nuclear fuel element stems 57.5 (contains 2.3 kg of U-235) has dipancingkan into the terrace of the reactor and on the conditions that the reaction core of continuous right could've happened. Magnitude 2.3 kg of U-235 is called weighted-critical. Critical here there is no relation to the danger. Away days later, the head of the Triga reactor development projects, Djali Ahimsa, the Director General and foreigners. At the time, the experts involved cheer and relief.

The next day, October 17, 1964, the regional newspaper the daily work of preaching about the coming nuclear century. While the Radio Australia broadcasts the news the next day "Indonesia is able to make the atomic reactors". This news was followed by reviews of two minutes by "stringer" AK Jacoby who wrote: Indonesia entered the nuclear century. Along with 11 other unit types of reactors, research reactors (types of Mark I and Mark II) artificial General Atomic Mark II is a grant from the u.s. Government, the early 1960s, to to Viet Nam, carousel, Italy, Austria, Japan, and Indonesia for 350,000 US dollars per unit. Its use for training, research, production of radio isotopes.

About 25 years later all the reactor has been discontinued operations grants (decommissioning) because it's already reached the age limit of the operation, except Indonesia, reactors due to its main components have been replaced by dismantling the reactor and then re-add it with a new component twice.

The first demolition in 1972 led Sutaryo Supadi and in 1997 led Haryoto Djoyosudibyo and a. Hanafiah ARIS. The supervision carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) over everything, especially the balance of usage and exit entry of U-235.

That type of reactor, as well as other research reactors-in General, it is not possible to explode due to fuel elements of U-235 concentration only 20 per cent, were for the bomb to 98 percent. So the second element-fuel nuclear installations were different. After all the fuel elements of U-235 disenyawakan with "zirconium-hydride" which turned out to be not fully fueled at once, so the temperature is too high before exploding (negative reactivity prompt coeffisien).

The reactor's work always generate heat and neutrons. Heat can be converted into electrical energy (nuclear power), while the neutron particle to create "radioisotope" by way of menumbukkan to an ordinary chemicals become radioactive substances.

Now the head of the center of a nuclear Installation under the auspices of the Batan is led by Djatmoko m. Sc stating so far no accident or nuclear incident, except for some time anomaly which does not endanger personnel, including at the time of loading and unloading plug the reactor with the replacement of major components-koponen (tank, reflector, bellows, Lazy Susan, control, and burn).

Radioisotope applications

Experts has pioneered the application of "radioisotope" generated for hydrological research, such as the leakage of Dyke Reservoirs Darma brass (1967), sediment movement research port of Tanjung Priok (1972), nuclear medicine (1970), agriculture (1969), and industry (1968) and has now reached the number of dozens of other projects.

Shipments of radioactive substances have also been made to Malaysia (1971) and Singapore (1972) for research. Delivery was pioneered export substance to this high-tech results (Molybdenum) into Malaysia since 15 years ago, to Viet Nam, Thailand, Japan, as a result production Reactor in Serpong-Siwabessy GA FRG (the third research reactor) by PT Batantek (led by the late Bustomi and Hai).

Hundreds of students have made use of Triga reactors as an object or subject of the final project. The reactor had been operating for over a hundred thousand hours. A dozen compound "radioisotope" standardized have been produced. One of them "Iodium-Hipuran" has been used for the diagnosis of kidney (renogram) against hundreds of patients in eight 8 Nuclear Medicine Clinic.

Confidence in the IAEA to expert Triga evidenced by dozens of research contracts awarded, beginning research about "tritium" on behalf of Prof. Oei Ban Liang (1973) and organizing international scientific meetings several times as well as the writing of the results of the study in the journal of physics, chemistry, and biology.

Experience of replacing major components of the reactors be a lesson to build its own nuclear reactors, both design and construction as the reactor Kartini (1979) in Yogyakarta, led Iyos Subki and r. Ronodirjo (RIP) Suroto.

Pengalamam it is also a lesson in planning to build a special reactor is only for the production of "radioisotope" that all of its components is the result of the domestic industry (except electronic control equipment and uranium fuel elements).

Special education experts to the United Kingdom had been prepared in 1994, but could not be implemented because there are no funds. Study of marketability "radioisotope" through international agencies in the United Kingdom and Canada have been finalized and a break-even was reached in 6-7 years.

As an observer who has engaged in nuclear development of nuclear power for 20 years (1960-1980) and observe its development here and there including NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS until now development controversy. From observation it can be concluded that without intention, the courage and determination, the Indonesia that still lay and minimal experts at installing reactors first reactor Triga Mark II Bandung early 1960s will not manage to reach the goal. Likewise if the Government and Parliament, for example, decided to build NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS, so well-rounded determination and courage that counts should be held firm, United-ECE.

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